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浅析医学英语中结构分隔现象的翻译
编辑:北京译海腾飞翻译公司   发布时间:2018-06-07

浅析医学英语中结构分隔现象的翻译

作者:张林 陈续跃

 

医学英语中同一成分内有关部分或不同成分间,在一般情况下是挨得很紧的。但在某种情况下却被拆开了。这种“拆开”现象被称之为“分隔”。它有时会给理解句子造成困难,在翻译过程中很有重视这一现象的必要。下面从两方面来阐述这一现象。

 

    1.    成分内分隔

    1.1     谓语内的分隔  A:助动词或情态动词与实意动词之间被状语、同位语、插入语等分隔。翻译时,绝大多数位置不变,但也有前译的时候。For example: When he returned home last week, the jaundice had practically faded.他上周回家时,黄疸实际上已经消失。Molecules must themselves be almost incompressible.分子本身几乎不可压缩。If, therefore, it were possible to connect the eye with the temporal lobe, and the ear with the occipital lobe, we would, as someone has expressed it, hear the lightening and see the thunder.”因此,假设我们有可能将眼与颞叶连接起来,将耳与枕叶连接起来的话,那么,我们就会像有人说的那样,先听到闪电,后看到雷鸣”。B:被自身一部分分隔的现象。翻译时,位置不变。For example: The term has been, and still is, used in different senses by different writers.这个术语一向而且仍然被不同作者用于不同的概念。

    1.2   非谓语动词短语内的分隔  分词独立主格结构中的逻辑主语与分词有时被其他成分分隔。翻译时,位置不变。For example: The ventricles expel blood, and their walls are thick and strong, the wall of the left ventricle, which drives blood through most of the body, being nearly three times as thick as that of the right, which drives the blood only through the lungs.心室可以把血排出,其壁厚而结实,由于左心室要把血液输送到全身,而右心室只把血液输送到肺部,所以左心室壁的厚度将近右心室壁的三倍。A:不定式动词符号to与动词分隔而形成“分裂不定式”。翻译时位置不变。For example: Pressure is believed to considerably raise the boiling point of a liquid.相信压力颇能升高液体的沸点。B:其他分隔现象,翻译时位置同样不变。For example: He remembered to have once carried out that test at ordinary temperature.他记得曾一度在常温下进行过那种试验。Palpation is the act of examining an underlying organ by feeling with any part of the hand the overlying surface and is usually the second step in a physical examination.触诊就是用手的任何部分接触表皮来检查体内器官的手段,通常是体格检查的第二步骤。The veil wrapped in mystery the secret of the creation and growth and structure of organisms was thrust aside.蒙住在机体的发生,生长和构造这一秘密的神秘面纱被揭开了。

    1.3   介词短语中的分隔  介词及其宾语被有关对象分隔。翻译位置基本保持不变,但要充分考虑介词短语的中文表达。For example: The heart serves as a two-cylinder pump situated between and connecting the two systems.心脏是处于这两个循环之间并连接这两个循环的双圆柱血泵。Saturated steam is that which is in the presence of, and at the same temperature as the water from which it was evaporated.饱和蒸汽是同蒸发它的水同时存在并具有与蒸发它的水同样温度的蒸汽。

    1.4   搭配结构中的分隔  翻译时有些搭配结构常紧挨一起用于句中。但有时却被其他成分分隔而不易看出,翻译时位置不变。The procedures of disinfection are varied and depend to a great degree upon the biologic characteristics of the organisms.消毒的方法是多种多样的,它在很大程度上取决于要杀灭的微生物的生物学特性。Increased sodium excretion following saline infusions was due, at least in part, to a diminution of tubular reabsorption.盐水从静脉输入后,排出量增加,至少部分地是由于肾小管重吸收的减少。In order to become available for use by the cells, food must be changed into simpler forms and they must be changed to liquids.要使食物变得能为细胞所利用,食物必须变成较简单的形式,而且必须变成液态。The chief action of these rays is to bring about the conversion of steroids which are normally present in the skin into vitamin D.这些射线的主要作用是使正常含于皮肤内的类固醇转化为维生素D。有些搭配结构本身是分隔性的,但有时被分隔得很远。For example: One must be careful not to confuse blood that has been swallowed from mouth or nose with that really coming from the bleeding into the stomach.应注意不要把从口腔或鼻腔咽下去的血液同真正的胃出血混淆起来。

    2.    成分间的间隔

    2.1   主谓之间的分隔  主语和谓语一般是相连的,但有时因为插进其他成分而被分隔,翻译时要根据插入成分的功能进行翻译。A:主语与谓语被后置的定语分隔。For example: Foods deficient in iron are unfit for patients with anemia.缺铁的食物对贫血病人是不适宜的。The time it takes for the blood of human beings to clot is usually about five minutes.人的血液凝固所花的时间一般为五分钟左右。The chemical reaction taking place in the mouth is accomplished by means of saliva.口腔中发生的化学反应是借助唾液完成的。B:被主语的同位语分隔。The lymph nodes, glandlike structure, are situated at certain strategic points in the course of the lymph vessels.淋巴结是腺样结构,位于淋巴管通路的某些要害点。Vitamin D, the sunlight vitamin, was among the first to be discovered.维生素D,即日光维生素,是最先发现的维生素之一。C:被状语或插入语分隔。For example: The tears, after flowing over the surface of the eye, are chained from its inner angle into the nose by two small rubes-the lachrymal ducts.泪水在流过眼睛表面后,在内眦处由两根小管(鼻泪管)排到鼻腔。The skin, when it is intact, capably resists myriads of bacteria that live on it.皮肤当它完整无损时,能够抵御在它上面生成的无数细菌。This medicine, it is said, has no untoward effects.这种药据说没有不良作用。

    2.2   系表之间的分隔,翻译时位置保持不变。  A:被状语、插入语分隔。For example: Almost all are to some extent bound to plasma proteins.几乎所有的药物都不同程度地与血浆蛋白质结合。Amino acids are, as the name suggests, compounds with the properties of both acids and amines.如其名称所提示的那样,氨基酸是具有酸和氨基性质的化合物。B:系动词与另一谓语共用一对象作表语而被分隔。For example: Rheumatic fever is, or will ultimately change into, a serious disease.风湿热是或最终会变成一种严重的疾患。

    3.    谓语和宾语之间的分隔,翻译时按英文词序进行

    3.1   被状语、插入语等分隔  For example: Only may calculate in the conventional manner the amount of sodium bicarbonate needed to correct the metabolic acidosis.我们可以用常规方法计算出纠正代谢性酸中毒所需要的碳酸氢钠量。This medicine cant remove, of course, the cause of the disease, but it will ease to a certain degree the intolerable pain.这种药当然不能除去病,但能在一定程度上减轻难以忍受的疼痛。

    3.2   被宾语补语分隔  宾语过长,其补语过短,常将宾语放在补语后而与谓语分隔。For example: It will make possible synthetic production of the elements.它将使元素的人工合成生产成为可能。They saw repairing the medical instrument two medical workers who designed it.他们看到两位医务工作者在修理他们设计的那台医疗仪器。

    3.3   “及物动词+介词短语”结构中,宾语较长,置于介词短语之后而与谓语分隔。  For example: We ought to take into consideration the plan that he suggested.我们应该考虑他所提出的计划。

    4.    同位语与本位语之间的分隔

    4.1   本位语的后置定语分隔  All the facts point to idea persuasively put forward by Casperssen, that the nucleic acid is concerned with protein synthesis.所有事实都说明Casperssen所提出的这个令人信服的想法,即核酸与蛋白合成有关。

    4.2   本位语为主语时,其同位语太长,常将谓语前置而把同位语分隔开来。这样使句子结构匀称,避免了头重脚轻。翻译时,一般采用前置定语方式进行翻译。For example: The hypothesisis advanced that epithelium lining the fallopian tube, secretes an enzyme which has the ability to degrade glycogen or glucose.可以提出这样的假说,即输卵管内面的上皮可以分泌具有分解糖原或葡萄糖能力的酶。(如果主语的后置定语中的同位语较长,常用倒装语序把被谓语分隔开)For example: In any one of a host of diverse disorders might be the cause: pulmonary tuberculosis, cancer, diabetes, thyrotoxicosis even worry.在许许多多不同的疾病中任何一种都可能是其原因,如肺结核,肿瘤、糖尿病、甲状腺毒症,甚至忧虑也可以成为其原因。

    5.    补语与被补对象之间的分隔

    5.1   宾语和宾语补语常被宾语的后位定语或补语的前位修饰语分隔。We call atoms of the same element that have different atomic weights isotopes.我们把具有不同原子量的同一种元素的原子叫做同位素。

    5.2   宾语和主语补语常被谓语或其他成分分隔,翻译时位置不变。For example: Toxemia of pregnancy is classified according to it severity as mild, moderate or severe.妊娠毒血症按发病的严重程度可分为轻度的,中度的或重度的。This common disease has long been regarded by some people in China and other countries asincurable.这种常见病长期以来一直被国内外的一些人认为是“不治之症”。

    6.    受定语与后位定语之间的分隔

    6.1   定语与后位定语较长,放在较短的谓语之后而造成成分分隔。须按中文的习惯表达方式来表达。For example: Some diseases are known the symptoms of which are usually indefinite in the early stages.已知有些疾病,其症状在早期通常不明显。No other drug is available at present that can produce the same therapentic effect with less risk.现在还没有别的能够产生相同疗效而危险性又较小的药物。

    6.2   there引导句中,状语通常位于主语之后。若主语有后位定语,则被该状语分隔。按中文的习惯来表达。For example: There are more and more medical workers in foreign countries interested in acupuncture nowadays.当今在国外,对针灸感兴趣的医务工作者越来越多。There were a few people in the hospital waiting for physical examination.医院里有些人在等待体检。

    6.3   受定语有两个以上的后位定语时,一个紧跟其后,其余的则逐一被分隔。一般说来,较短的放在前面,较长的放在后面。Digestion consists in the necessary chemical changes in the food which must occur before it can be absorbed.消化在于食物能够被吸收之前的必要的化学变化。The fetus swims within a sac of water known as the amniotic membrane.胎儿浮在羊水里。

    6.4   受定语和定语被插入语、状语、同位语等分隔,按中文习惯翻译。No pure sulfuric acid, if applied to the skin, but produces bad burns.没有浓硫酸洒在皮肤上而不产生严重烧伤的。This is the site, I suppose, where a new hospital will be built.我看,就会在这个场地新建一所医院。

   

在医学英语的翻译过程中,只要译者抓住了“现象”,就会找到解决问题本质的途径。因此,我们主张译者要深入分析原文句子结构,学习和掌握原文的相关知识,抓住原文意义之后,大胆地甩开原文的表达形式,用地道的专业术语进行翻译,这样就可能达到“出神如化”的境地。

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